Early Modern Bibliography

1610 to 1690

copyright 1997 by Historical Novelists Center


Be sure and catch the Atlas of Civilisation series, in this case the period chapters of The Cultural Atlas of France, The Cultural Atlas of Russia, etc.

Billacois, Francois

The Duel *****!
Yale University Press; 252 pgs
Details the code duello and the reasons for duelling in France in the 1500s and 1600s. T2

Bloch, Ivan

Sexual Life in England, Past & Present *****!
1938; now from Oracle; 664 pgs !!
What had to be privately printed in 1938 can be of general interest now. Despite the title, only covers from the Anglo-Saxon period through the late 1800's, but in a full range, from streetwalkers to the escapades of royalty, from staid marriage arrangements to kinky erotica. T2

Bray, Peter, editor

Transport Through the Ages **
Taplinger Publishing Co., NY, 1971; drawings by Barbara Brown
Covers a bit of everything, from dugout canoes on. Emphasis on later periods. T1

Brett, Gerard

Dinner is Served ****
Archon Books, Hamden, CN, 1968
British meals of the day and their conduct; Part One covers up to 1660. One of the better books out on dining habits. T2

Brockett, Oscar G.

History of the Theatre ***
Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1977
Good university-level text on staging conventions, acting forms, audience behavior, etc., which can be very different from today. Controllable stage lighting is so new!. T2

Burgess, Robert F.

Ships Beneath the Sea: A History of Subs and Submersibles ****
McGraw-Hill, 1975; 260 pg, index, bibliography
A courtier presented the idea of a submarine to Queen Elizabeth, and in 1620, Dr. van Drebble built a working one on which James I voyaged under the Thames. Chapter One deals with your period submersibles.. T2/3

Castiglione, Baldesar

The Book of the Courtier *****!
translated by Sir Thomas Hoby (1561), full text [At Oregon, Renascence Editions]
Penguin Classics, trans by George Bull; 1967
The original was published 1527, showing court life in Urbino, Italy, around 1516. Later in the century it was very popular in England, and will influence how people think they ought to behave. Discusses a thousand topics of the courtly life, from whether women are better or worse than men to what a courtier should know of combat, including what makes a good jest. Too wide-ranging to sum up shortly. It was very much the pattern book for good upper-class behavior until Lord Chesterfield in the late 1700s. T2

Chisman, Isabel and Hester Emilie Raven-Hart

Manners and Movement in Costume Plays *****!
H. F. W. Deane & Sons, London, 1934
Gives select dances, as well as how to handle one's sword, fan, walking-stick, and hat. Manners are very different from the 19th century! What you think is right before reading this, is often very wrong.. T2

Clements, John

Renaissance Swordsmanship: The Illustrated Use of Rapiers and Cut-and-Thrust Swords ****
Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado; 1997
Based on principles of combat, not sport, Clements cooks down all those eye-crossing renaissance fencing manuals, based on his years of trying to make these work. He comes to the field from unarmed Asian martial arts and kendo as well as fencing. His diagrammatic drawings clarify all the old woodcuts in baggy clothes. If anyone's going to draw either a rapier or a cut-and-thrust sword in your book, read this first, especially if you don't know the difference. T2

Cornish, Joe, et al

The Coast of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland ***
Abrams; 142 pages; lots of photos
In cause you need to see it but can't make the trip. T3

Cucari, Attilio

Sailing Ships *
Rand McNally & Co., Chicago, NY, SF; 1978; illustrator: Guido Canestrari
Interesting overview with pretty pictures BUT illos are not proportional, only a rough idea of appearance. Facts should be cross-referenced with other sources if possible. Not gospel, but can be handy home reference. Hold a piece of paper across the waterline to see what they look like when not sailing through the sky above you, a loathesome angle to have drawn them at. T1

Deacon, Richard

The French Secret Service ***
Grafton Books, 1990; 363 pg, index, bibliography
Beginning with Cardinal Richelieu's in 1600 on the first page, through about page 25, you may get enough idea of Renaissance spy-structures for your needs.. T2

Delbrück, Hans

The Dawn of Modern Warfare: History of the Art of War, volume IV *****!
University of Nebraska Press, 1990, trans. Walter J. Renfroe, Jr.; orig. 1923; 487 pg, index
Really very clearly presented for a subject that is so variable and ornate.. T2

Discovering Antiques; The Story of World Antiques ****!

Purnell Partworks, London, 1970
This was an excellent periodical, later sold as a hard-bound set. All articles in this partwork are well-researched, with beautiful colour photos and period art, but each is specialist and limited. Consider this secondary or tertiary research, to fill in the details of the world you are starting to carry in your head.
Issue 8, Italian Baroque: furniture, interiors, armour, and theatre design.
Issue 9, Netherlands, 17th C.: furniture, glass, maiolica, silver.

Driver & Johnson

Pepys At Table *****!
120 pg
Samuel Pepys's diary is rarely presented unedited. Most editions emphasise the political and other notable events, but he commented in some detail on both fashion and food. Here the meals and dishes he mentioned are collected, with both period and modern recipes. T3

Duffy, Christopher

Fire and Stone: The Science of Fortress Warfare, 1660-1860 ****
Hippocrene Books, NY, 1975; now from Greenhill
Well-written, well-illustrated and well-designed. The Fortess Wargame for Miniatures is tactical fun while teaching you how things can work or go wrong. The other appendix, on how to tour old fortifications, is good if you get to make the research trip.. T2

Siege Warfare *****!
Barnes & Noble
Covers 1494-1660, the period of the first great gunpowder sieges, when artillery was powerful enough to make a difference. The new warfare not only affected fortresses, but the rebuilding of towns and cities, too. T2

Durant, Will and Ariel

All run about 900 pages, occasionally over 1000, with index and bibliography. End papers are maps, and at the beginning is an idea of coinage worth, but now you would have to adjust further for inflation since publication. All are clearly and pleasantly written, an excellent first book on the period.. T1
  • The Age of Reason Begins *****!
    Simon & Schuster, 1961; now from MJF Books; covers 1558-1642
  • The Age of Louis XIV *****!
    Simon & Schuster, 1963; now from MJF Books; covers 1648-1715

Ehrlich, Blake

London on the Thames ***
Little, Brown & Co., NY, 1966
Each chapter tours London at a different period, often in a slightly different neighborhood since London is constantly expanding. Good for establishing how far out London goes in YOUR year. T2

Elliot, J. H.

Richelieu and Olivares ****
Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History; 1984; Cambridge University
Gives a valuable contrast of the styles, aims, and countries of these chief ministers. Nicely corrects 20-20 hindsight: we know who won, but at the time the betting was all on Olivares and Spain. Not too large, not too heavy, but still college level. T1

Erlanger, Philippe

The King's Minion: Richelieu, Louis XIII, and the Affair of Cinq-Mars ****
1962; Prentice-Hall, NJ; 1971 translation by Gilles & Heather Cremonesi

Franklyn, Julian

Heraldry *****!
A. S. Barnes & Co., South Brunswick & Cranbury NJ, 1968
Easy-reading and graphic, not your usual turgid lap-breaker nor an inaccurate surface pamphlet. Author is a classicist and dislikes Victorian corruptions. Superb first (or only!) book on heraldry. T2

Gardiner, Robert, editor

Cogs, Caravels and Galleons; The Sailing Ship 1000-1650 ****
Conway's History of the Ship; Conway Maritime Press, London; for USA and Canada, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD; 1994; 188 pg, index, bibliography.
Actually a collection of articles written for this volume by a number of experts, it covers as well as it can a period in which information is quite spotty. However, the number of reproduction ships which have sailed should have provided more hard data than this has. T2

Gondi, Jean Francois Paul de, Cardinal de Retz (1614-1679)

The Memoirs of Cardinal de Retz; Written by Himself, Being Historic Court Memoirs of the Great Events during the Minority of Louis XIV. and the Administration of Cardinal Mazarin. ****
Available at PG either as one file or several volumes, TXT or HTML versions.
Self-revealing memoire of one of the worldly churchmen of the age, who began his career during the last days of Richelieu and Louis XIII. However, the story really takes off when he describes, from his involvement, the French Civil War known as the war of the Fronde. As well, he was involved with the Stewart exile in Paris, describing in what penniless vagabondage they arrived and endured. He sometimes inserts dates after 1646: before then, you must guess, working off his age and birthyear. Also, a huge cast of names is introduced: wait until you have some of the court figures straight before digging into this. T2

Hale, William Harlan, and the editors of Horizon Magazine

The Horizon Cookbook and Illustrated History of Eating and Drinking through the Ages ****
American Heritage Publishing, Inc., 1968
Part One has the description of customs and habits, foods available, and some interesting art. Part Two has the tastiest recipes, done for the modern kitchen. Especially hits this period in Part One. T1

Head, Brandon

Food of the Gods: A Popular Account of Cocoa***
This amusing trifle does cover the arrival of cocoa in Europe, and the rise of coffee shops as political centers, but will be of more use to someone setting up a cocoa plantation in the colonies. T3

Hibbert, Christopher

The Rise & Fall of the House of Medici *****!
William Morrow & Co, or Penguin Books Ltd, or The Folio Society; 1974
Hibbert writes wonderfully engaging histories. This one covers from 1433 to 1743, with all the good dirt, giving the propaganda and the truth. T2

Hibbert, Christopher

London, the Biography of a City ***
William Morrow & Co., Inc., NY, 1969
Runs it all down through time, with good coverage of your period. T2

Hogg, Ian V.

The History of Fortification ***
St. Martin's Press, NY, 1981
Clear, interesting and accurate overview from 7000 BC through the 1970's, well illustrated with photos and diagrams; bibliography and glossary. T2

Hurrell, John Weymouth

Measured Drawings of Old English Oak Furniture ****
1902; Dover
Furniture of the time, including how armoires of the period were built and what a close press really was (not a cupboard).

Ingraham, Holly

People's Names: A Cross-Cultural Reference Guide to the Proper Use of over 40,000 Personal and Familial Names in over 100 Cultures *****!
McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, NC; 1997; 613 pgs, index, select annotated bibliography
The Historical half has chapters for naming practices in England, France, Germany, and Italy, as well as a brief note on adapting the Contemporary Spanish chapter. You may also want the Breton, Provencal, and Basque chapters. Gives not only individual names, but the family names, too. Some Contemporary chapters, like Cornish, have historical info. T1

Kohler, Carl

A History of Costume ****
1930; New York, G. Howard Watt
Hand-sized, info-packed, based on surviving clothes first and artwork secondarily. Author's line drawings of construction and detail. Neophytes should use with a picture book, which it will greatly clarify. T2

Konstam, Angus 

Buccaneers, 1620-1700****
Osprey Elite Series #69, 2000
Illustrated by Angus McBride, whose figures get broader with every passing decade. An excellent précis of information largely from Cordingly and Esquemeling (modern and period authors), very suitable to give you an immediate idea of the actual, not romanticized, Caribbean buccaneer of this period. T1

Litchfield, Frederick

Illustrated History of Furniture from the Earliest to the Present Time ****
1903; London: Truslove & Hanson Limited; New York:; illustrated by John Lane 1892-1903.
A good basic reference, based on art in early ages. You normally don't have to detail furniture, just know if they had easily movable chairs and tables or what's fashionable. Eurocentric, Anglocentric. T1

MacManus, Seumas

The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland ****
Devin-Adair Company, 1992; orig. 1921, rev. 1966; 737 pg, index, bibliography w/each chapter
Comprehensive, to say the least, if limited in breadth. T2

Mitchell, R. J., and M.D.R. Leys

A History of London Life ***
Penguin Books, Inc., NY, 1958
Different areas of town in the different eras, but it does concentrate on daily life, trades, street scenes, rather than architecture. T2

Moote A. Lloyd

Louis XIII, the Just ****!
1989; Anchor Doubleday paperback
This is the detail biography to get. Discusses the conflicting theories and interpretations, rather than presenting the author's view as settled fact. Deals well with people close to him, whether family or favorites. Many interesting original quotes from memoirs, letters, etc. T2

Phillips, Carla Rahn

Six Galleons for the King of Spain: Imperial Defense in the Early Seventeenth Century ****
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD; 1986; 308 pg, index, bibliography
Besides the info on galleons, carracks, shipbuilding, and sailing in general, the aftermatter includes a list of coinage, weights and measures in use in Spain at the time, mariner's wages, and "Nutritional Content of Spanish Shipboard Dietaries." Scholarly enough to be fascinating, but very readable, not just for specialists. T3

Plaidy, Jean, aka Victoria Holt

The Spanish Inquisition ****
Details the Inquisitions operations to root out witches, secret Jews and Moslems, Protestants and other heretics. T2

Plessis, Armand Jean du , Cardinal et Duc de Richelieu

The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu: The Significant Chapters and Supporting Selections *****!
1961 trans; University of Wisconsin; Henry Bertram Hill, trans
His Scarlet Eminence's own words, a farewell message to his king, obviously organized over a lifetime, laying out how he thought the country could best be governed and improved. T2, before you get the melodramatic wrong ideas about him.

Ratcliffe, Derek A.

The Peregrine Falcon YY
Buteo Books, Vermillion, SD, 1980
Mostly ornithological information with a little falconry, but valuable on how and where and when birds can be found. They are not bred in captivity. T3

Richardson, Albert Edward

The Old Inns of England *****!
B. T. Batsford, Ltd., London, 1952, 6th Ed.
Includes a map of the Principal Coaching Routes. Photos of some survivors, with descriptions out of history of how they were run. T2

Rickert, Edith

The Babees Book: Medieval Manners for the Young, Now First Done into Modern English from the Texts of Dr. F. J. Furnivall
Chatto & Windus, London, 1923
A period view of manners, nicely translated. In most cases, tedious verse is rendered in less maddening prose. Three from 1430's, two each from the 1460's and 1500, and one each from 1446, 1475, 1480,1551, 1557, and 1619. T2

Saalman, Howard

Medieval Cities ***
George Braziller, NY, 1968
Illustrated with original city plans, gives reasons why the city of the time grows the way it does. Most of the plans fall in this period, rather than what we call the Middle Ages, since this is when people started doing clear plans. T2

Salmonson, Jessica Amanda

The Encyclopedia of Amazons: Women Warriors from Antiquity to the Modern Era *****!
Paragon House, NY, 1991; 290 pg, no index, bibliography
Some women served in the many wars secretly, as men, but there were quite a few, especially in the English Civil War, who fought openly as women, either defending their castles or raising and leading troops. This is also the period of the conquistadoras in the New World, the "roaring girls" of London, and female duellists in France. T2

Sandys, George

A Relation of a Journey
"Sandys departed from London in 1610 on board "The Little Defence" of London. He traveled to Venice, Italy and arrived in Constantinople on the 27th of September. After spending four months in Constantinople, he sailed for Egypt aboard the "Trinity" of London. He left Cairo by camel for the Holy Land on March 4th, 1611. After three weeks in the Holy Land he rejoined the "Trinity" and eventually made his way back to Italy where he spent some time before returning to England."

Seward, Desmond

The Monks of War ****
Penguin Books, NY
Basics on the major military orders -- the Templar, Hospitallers, and the Teutonic Knights -- from their formation before the first Crusade through their present remnants. T2

Shelley, Henry C. (Henry Charles)

Inns And Taverns Of Old London: Setting Forth the Historical and Literary Associations of Those Ancient Hostelries, Together With an Account of the Most Notable Coffee-houses, Clubs, and Pleasure Gardens of the British Metropolis ***
For this era, gives a good accounting of the inns and taverns of Southwark and other parts. of the city and suburbs However, just as it goes area by area, it goes inn by inn, and will finish discussing the 19th C end of one before picking up with the medieval existence of another. Heavy into showing how many literary authors he can quote. T3

Silver, Caroline

Guide to the Horses of the World ***
Chartwell Books, NY, 1990, orig. 1975; 233 pg, inde
Good historical notes hidden among the breeds guide you to avoiding most of them as too modern, and constructing your few available breeds. Nags still rule! T2

Smiles, Samuel (1812-1904)

The Life of Thomas Telford civil engineer with an introductory history of roads and travelling in Great Britian ****
London, J. Murray, 1867; Project Gutenburg, on-line
Especially valuable for its introduction on the history of roads in England, including excerpts from various period descriptions and laws. Roads we would consider a disgrace to a jungle island were the norm in England and Europe. Be sure to read the sections on how this psychologically affected the average rural village. T1

Somerset, Anne

Ladies-in-Waiting, from the Tudors to the Present Day ****
Knopf, dist. by Random House, NY; 1984; 341 pg, index, bibliography
Discusses the duties and personalities, how appointments were made, kept, and lost in the English court down the centuries. Somerset's opinion of Elizabeth I improved once she did deeper research, so don't set too much on that expressed here. T2

Spurling, ed.

Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book *****!
Perhaps the best of the "Renaissance recipes done modern" books. Fettiplace dates from 1604, and this is not just cookery, but all sorts of advice for the mistress of the house. Gives an excellent window on the English manor house. T2

Stone, J. M. (Jean Mary)

Studies From Court And Cloister: being essays, historical and literary dealing mainly with subjects relating to the XVIth and XVIIth centuries ***

Stone, Lawrence

Road to Divorce; England 1530-1987 *****!
Oxford University Press, 1990; 459 pg, index
Marriage law as well as the rules of separation and divorce. Fleet marriages, wife-sale, crim-con, contract marriage, clandestine marriage, elopement, and the rest of the snarl. You don't know how unsteady the world could be until you read this trilogy. T2; T1 if you plan to hinge any of your plot on any of this.

Broken Lives *****!
Oxford; part of this trilogy on marriage and family

Uncertain Unions *****!
Oxford; ditto

Family, Sex, and Marriage in England, 1500-1800 *****!
London, 1977; think of this as the compact version, with a slightly earlier edge, less emphasis on law change. T2

An Open Elite? England 1540-1880 *****!
Oxford; about the landed classes; with Jeanne C. Fawtier Stone T2

Tapié, Victor-Lucien

France in the Age of Louis XIII and Richelieu *****!
1952; Praeger Publishers, NY; D. McN. Lockie, trans; Prof. A. G. Dickens, foreward
Sets the stage for the feudal chaos these two men forged into a modern nation. Details the lives of the people and nobility, the Church, the bureacracy, and the steps by which king and minister both advanced and were held back in their efforts to improve France and frusttepburg conquest of Europe. T2 but as soon as you've decided to set your story in France.

Tarr, Laszlo

The History of the Carriage ****
Arco Publishing Co, Inc., NY, 1969; translated by Elisabeth Hoch
My favorite description of how carriages work, and why riding in them in this period is for display, not pleasure. T2

Thrower, Rayner

The Pirate Picture ***
Barnes & Noble, NY, 1980; 171 pg, index, no illustrations
Contains a good deal on information beyond the introductory, but manages to sit leadenly, dull writing despite its swashbuckling, action subject. Thrower has not researched outside his immediate sphere, as when he considers it mysterious that certain Irish and Scots should be called Red Legs (it meant they went bare-legged in traditional Celtic dress, rather than wearing English breeches). Bibliography is a fine guide to further reading. T2

Timberlake, Henry

A True and Strange discourse of the traveiles of two English pilgrimes: What admirable accidents befell them in their journey to Jerusalem, Gaza, Grand Cayro, Alexandria, and other places (1601)
"The account of the journey actually begins in Grand Cayro. From this location all travel is conducted across the Arabian Desert on camels. The entire journey lasts for fifty-two days; stay in Jerusalem lasted for only six days. "

Trout, Andrew

City on the Seine: Paris in the Time of Richelieu and Louis XIV, 1614-1715 ***
All maps 1739 and tiny partials at that: nothing overall to give a sense of the layout of the city. The text is good in that it describes the older city and its organizations (you need this guide to the bureacracy), but the approach is disjointed in that it covers from early to late, back and forth, often making it difficult to pin down just what year the author is referring to. Of course, emphasizes all the sweeping changes Louis XIV made. One has to mine out of it, research card by card, while building one's own map: X-P. But there's no easy substitue for it. T3

Wedgwood, Cicely Veronica

Richelieu and the French Monarchy *****!
An excellent introduction to the times from the point of view of the most dominating personality. Well-written, clear and clarifying, makes me want to find everything she wrote on the period (her specialty was the 1600s). Gives fascinating glances at Louis XIII as uptight but intelligent, brave, and devout, his mistresses, his favorites, his Spanish queen who was "beautiful, willful, and demanding," the Queen Mother, her favorite son who was always stirring up rebellion, the tatty, partyless palace compared to the magnificent entertainments of the cardinal -- all in all, fine reading. Especially good is ch. 3, summing up the state of Europe in 1624, and ch. 9 on "French Civilization." T1

Wilson, Colin

The Occult ****
Vintage Books, 1971; 601 pg, index, bibliography
Discusses what an adept must be, and the stories of some of the mystics and sorcerers of the period. T2

Wise, Arthur

The Art and History of Personal Combat *****!
Arma Press, New York Graphic Society Ltd, Greenwich, CN, 1971
Necessary for proper duelling techniques and behaviors. Shows the development of the schools of fencing and which is beginning when, using which weapons. Your Spaniards should fence by geometry. T2

Musical Selections

Baird, Julianne, soprano; Ronn McFarlane, lutes

Greensleeves; a Collection of English Lute Songs ****
Dorian Recordings, NY; DOR-90126; lyrics
Dorian was founded to produce only CD's, of the highest quality. The artists are "early music" devotees as, blessed be, most of the musicians recording these things now are. What horrible Victorianisms we had to endure in the Seventies and Eighties! This is what you would hear from the ladies in waiting in the queen's solar. Selections run from about 1580-1630. T2

The City Waits

D'Urfey: Pills to Purge Melancholy ****
CD or cassette
Selections from a notorious collection of lewd songs, not for the prudish. D'Urfey entertained at the court of Charles II with these. T3

Lindberg, Jakob, and Paul O'Dette

English Lute Duets ***
CD or cassette
If you absolutely cannot write with the sound of the human voice, this is your best choice for background music. T2

The Musicians of Swanne Alley

In the Streets and Theatres of London; Elizabethan Ballads and Theatre Music ****
Virgin Classics, 1989; CD, VC 7 90789-2; lyrics
Songs run about 1570-1630, by a group dedicated to the instruments and music of this period, rather than being Classicists. T3

The Newberry Consort

The Golden Dream - 17th Century Music ***
Taken from all over Europe
Suite Cornago: Missa de la Mapa Mundi ***
Spanish Renaissance music
Ay Amor! 17th Century Spanish Songs & Theatre Music ***
Title sums it up.

Tafelmusik Baroque Orchestra

Virtuoso Chamber Music from 17th Century Italy ***
Cassette only
Late in the period, but that may be where you're writing. T2


My Mind to Me A Kingdom Is ****
With a real, natural counter-tenor, proving they needn't all be castrados. I was astonished that I liked the sound; in fact, I'm now a fan. A good idea of a popular professional performer's repetoire from the first quarter of the 1600's. T1


Salamandre: Chateaux of the Loire ***

The Voyager Company, 1988; laserdisc, 30 min.
Tours eighteen of the chateaux, which may provide you with grounds and interior for one of your settings. T2


Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts ****


AEMMA's link page to early sources on-line, starting with the Bayeux tapestry and a ms of 1280. These guys have been around since 1998: glad to find them.

The Alchemy Web Site and Virtual Library ****


"70 megabytes of information on alchemy in all its facets. Divided into over 1300 sections and providing thousands of pages of text, over 1700 images, over 200 complete alchemical texts, extensive bibliographical material on the printed books and manuscripts, numerous articles, introductory and general reference material. There is also a searchable graphics database with 800 images, and a database of alchemy books with 4600 entries and 5 megs of text. It was first launched on 7th May 1995 and new pages are continually being added. There are about 400 people accessing this site each day."

The Book of Quintessence ****


The full text and translation of "The Book of Quintessence" a mid-15th century alchemical text. Bryan has a warning/disclaimer against "dabbling around in chemistry" without training in safe handling practices and hazardous substances, in which this text abounds! As he points out that, like many would-be alchemists, you, too, could wind up "hurt, crazy, or dead" from actually performing any of the operations described -- not because they're demonic, but because mercury et al rots the brain. T3

Heraldica ****


Over 200 articles on the succession, courts, development of titles, lines of descent, legalities of claims to titles, etc. on the upper classes of Europe. These are topics often covered nowhere at all. As well, portrait galleries of various families can be found.

H-GIG Historical Times & Places ***


A thorough-going linksite maintained by the University of California at Riverside, H-GIG sorts by area, by era (ancient, Medieval, early Modern<yours>, Modern, and 20th C), or by topic (military, women, etc.). It's a good place to start a hunt for books and essays online.

  • Leave for H-GIG

Internet Medieval Sourcebook *****!


Halsall is collecting texts in translation, and also providing links to other sites like Berkeley, so as not to duplicate effort. This huge initial page links internally and externally to a list of period works, from the late Byzantine-early Christian age to the early Renaissance. Wonderful source, attractive without glitz, many matrices of approach (eg, by a topic like women's roles or by a period). This gets bigger and better all the time.


Maps of Switzerland****


German language site provides them from 1549-1939


Official and Original Project Gutenberg Web Site and HomePage*****!


"Fine Literature Digitally Republished. Since 1971 putting classic books into electronic form." You can download many texts of the time for free, each as a single big text file. Burn your own reference CD-R.


Primary Resources for the Study of Duelling and Fencing ****


A link page of various books available for you to read on line, with or without fees. Some of the links do lead to 404 errors.



To City Maps for this period

To Sad Colours Explanation

To Bibliography of Middle-Tech Skills

To Native American Cultures Bibliography

To Bibliography of Sub-Saharan Africa

To Bibliography of Northeast Asia: China, Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, etc.

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